«Скандал сторіччя»: як журналістика допомогла Маркесу стати письменником

Ґабріель Ґарсія Маркес вважав журналістику однією з найкращих професій, а себе називав, в першу чергу, журналістом. Cповнені влучних деталей репортажі є надзвичайно наративними, саме вони частково сформували його письменницький стиль та дали змогу зазирнути в бачення реального світу, який потім вплинув на світ його уяви. Журналістикою Маркес вперше всерйоз зайнявся під час здобуття юридичної освіти в Національному університеті Колумбії, за перші статті він заробляв не більше трьох песо. У збірці його колонок і репортажів «Скандал сторіччя» зібрано тексти письменника про різні події: від викрадення жінки до репортажу про вбивство в Римі, до якого причетні місцеві еліти. Розповідаємо детальніше про журналістське ремесло Маркеса — та про збірку його публіцистики, яка виходила в різноманітних виданнях впродовж понад 40 років. 

Уривки в матеріалі взято з видання «Скандал сторіччя», Видавництво Анетти Антоненко, 2019, пер. Галина Грабовська.

Зустріч з Гемінґвеєм

У 1954 році Гемінґвей став лауреатом Нобелівської премії, тож коли Маркес зустрів його у 1957 році, він вже був загальновідомим. Гема, зокрема, вважають натхненником для створення серії репортажів Маркеса Relato de un náufrago про моряка, який вижив після аварії корабля, навіть коли його вже оголосили пропавшим безвісти; Маркес також вважав Гема, наряду з Фолкнером, своїм американським вчителем з написання романів. Зустріч двох митців була, однак, короткою:

«Я відразу впізнав його, коли одного дня у дощову весну 1957 року він з дружиною Мері Велш походжав паризьким бульваром Сен-Мішель. Він ішов протилежним боком вулиці в напрямку Люксембурзького саду і мав на собі дуже зношені джинси, картату сорочку з «шотландки» і бейсболку. Єдине, що, здавалось, було не його, це маленькі круглі окуляри в металевій оправі, які робили його схожим на дочасного дідуся. Йому сповнилось 59 років, і був він здоровенним і надто помітним, але не створював враження брутальної сили, як, без сумніву, цього хотів би, бо мав вузькі стегна і трохи кістляві ноги над грубими черевиками лісоруба. Він здавався таким живим серед лотків з уживаними книгами і юного потоку з Сорбонни, що неможливо було уявити собі, що до смерті йому лишилося всього чотири роки.

На якусь частку секунди – як зі мною буває завжди – я почувся розколотим між моїми двома супротивними ремеслами. Не знав: узяти в нього інтерв’ю для преси чи просто перейти на другий бік проспекту, аби висловити йому моє безмежне захоплення. Однак для обох намірів існувала одна і та сама велика перепона: тоді я говорив такою ж зачатковою англійською мовою, якою продовжував говорити завжди, і не був дуже впевнений в його іспанській мові тореадора. Тож не зробив ні цього, ані того, аби не зіпсувати ту мить, а склав долоні рупором, як Тарзан в джунглях, і закричав з одного боку вулиці на другий: «Мае-е-е-естро». Ернест Гемінґвей зрозумів, що серед натовпу студентів не могло бути іншого маестро, обернувся, піднявши руку, і трохи дитячим голосом крикнув мені іспанською мовою: «Адьйос, аміґо!» То був єдиний раз, коли я його бачив».

У цьому ж матеріалі (під назвою «Мій особистий Гемінґвей») Маркес у 1981 році, за рік до того, як він сам стане лауреатом Нобелівки, підсумовує основні речі, яким він навчився у Маестро:

  • «він раз і назавжди пояснив – всупереч романтичному поняттю про творення, – що економічний комфорт і добре здоров’я є сприятливими для писання, що найбільшою складністю є добре поєднувати слова, що добре перечитувати власні книжки, коли важко писати – щоб пригадати, що важко було завжди, що можна писати будь-де – якщо тільки нема візитерів і телефону, що є неправдою те, що журналістика ставить хрест на письменникові, як про це стільки говорилося, а зовсім навпаки – якщо тільки її вчасно облишити»;
  • «Уся творчість Гемінґвея показує, що його натхнення було геніальним, але короткочасним. І це зрозуміло. Така внутрішня напруга, як його, підпорядкована такому суворому технічному контролю, не може підтримуватись в широкій і сповненій небезпек царині роману»;
  • «Його романи здаються розтягнутими оповіданнями, в яких є багато зайвого. Натомість найкраще, що є в його оповіданнях – це створюване ними враження, що в них щось пропущене, і саме це надає їм таємничості й краси»;
  • «літературне писання чогось варте лише тоді, коли його – як айсберг – під водою підтримують сім восьмих його об’єму»;
  • «Коли стільки часу співіснуєш з творами такого близького тобі письменника, врешті-решт неминуче змішуєш його вимисел з його дійсністю. Багато годин багатьох днів провів я за читанням у тій кав’ярні на площі Сен-Мішель, яку він вважав доброю для писання, бо вона здавалась йому симпатичною, теплою, чистою і привітною, і я завжди сподівався знову зустріти ту дівчину, яку він побачив, коли вона увійшла одного студеного і вітряного дня, дуже вродливу і кришталево чисту, з навскіс підстриженим волоссям, як вороняче крило. «Ти моя і Париж мій», – написав він для неї з тією невмолимою силою привласнення, що її мала його література. Все, що він описав, кожна мить, що була його, лишається його назавжди».

Як написати роман: рецепти від Маркеса

«Гадаю, що найбільше самим собі питання про те, як написати роман, ставлять самі романісти. І також самим собі ми щоразу даємо іншу відповідь», — зазначає Маркес в іншій колонці для El País, написаній в 1984 році. На той момент він вже написав свою знакову книгу «Сто років самотності» (1967 р.) та спробував себе в різних форматах і жанрах. В інтерв’ю The Paris Review у 1981 році Маркес заповідав не зважати на критику, розвивати інтуїцію, писати правдоподібно, спираючись на факти, та бути під час написання творів з повністю ясним розумом (себто тверезим). Щодо останнього — письменник навіть посміювався над тим, як деякі журналісти питали в нього, чи він не раптом не під якоюсь наркотичною речовиною писав книжки. «Це показує, що вони попросту не знають нічого ні про літературу, ні про наркотичні речовини», — підсумував він. 

В «Як написати роман?» Маркес також наводить дещо комічну історію. Можливо, читачам тих творів, які було відкинуто до нових півників, а потім стали бестселерами, вона і видасться щасливим збігом обставин, які врятували хороший твір, та автор виніс з цього інший урок:

«Я щойно переглянув свої папери, поклав в надійний сховок ті, які вважав вартими, щоб їх зберігати, і порвав ті, які визнав безнадійними. Ґайтан Дуран з тією невситимою жадобою, яку він відчував до літератури, а особливо до можливості виявити приховані скарби, почав порпатися в кошику з подертими паперами і раптом знайшов щось, що привернуло його увагу. «Але ж це дуже публікабельне», – мовив він. Я пояснив йому, чому я це викинув: то був цілий розділ, який я вилучив зі свого першого роману «Опале листя» (на той час вже опублікованого), і в нього не могло бути іншого чесного призначення, окрім кошика на сміття. Ґайтан Дуран був незгоден. Йому здавалося, що той текст і справді був би зайвий в романі, однак сам по собі він має іншу цінність. Радше для того, аби зробити йому приємність, аніж тому, що він мене переконав, я дозволив йому зліпити докупи клейкою стрічкою роздерті аркуші й опублікувати розділ, наче то було оповідання. 

«Як ми це назвемо?» – запитав він мене, вживаючи множину, яка рідко коли була настільки виправданою, як в тому випадку. «Не знаю, – відказав я. – Це просто монолог Ісабель, яка дивиться на дощ в Макондо». Майже в той самий час, коли я це казав, Ґайтан Дуран угорі першої сторінки написав: «Монолог Ісабель, яка дивиться на дощ в Макондо». Так зі сміття витягли одне з моїх оповідань, яке отримало найкращу похвалу критики і особливо читачів. Проте цей досвід не прислужився мені для того, аби я більше не рвав оригіналів, які не здаються мені публікабельними, він навчив мене, що рвати їх треба так, аби їх ніколи не можна було зліпити докупи».

Не лише письменник і журналіст — а й сценарист

Maria de mi corazón — фільм Хайме Умберто Ермосільйо 1979 року, відзнятий на основі реальних подій, про які Маркес розповів режисеру. Це досить незвична і трагічна історія того, як життєві обставини склалися не на користь головної героїні — і вона опинилася у психлікарні. 120-хвилинну драму непогано сприйняли критики, тож пізніше про роботу над нею Маркес розповів в El País:

«…він без жодного попередження прийшов сказати мені, що вже має перший начерк сценарію, тож ми разом продовжили працювати над ним, доки він не набув свого остаточного вигляду. Перед тим як виліпити характери головних дійових осіб, ми дійшли згоди про те, які саме двоє акторів зможуть найкраще їх зіграти: Марія Рохо і Ектор Бонілья. Це також дало змогу нам розраховувати на співпрацю їх обох при написанні певних діалогів, деякі ми просто накидали в загальних рисах, аби вони імпровізували, послуговуючись власною манерою мови під час зйомок.

Єдине, що я мав написане про ту історію (відколи мені її розповіли багато років тому в Барселоні), це розрізнені замітки в шкільному зошиті та ідею назви: «Ні, я прийшла лише поговорити по телефону». Та коли ми реєстрували проект сценарію, нам здалося, що ця назва не є найбільш підходящою, і тимчасово назвали його «Марія, моя любов». Пізніше Хайме Умберто Ермосільйо дав йому остаточну назву: «Марія, серденько моє». Вона найкраще пасувала цій історії – не лише за своєю суттю, але також за стилем.

Свою лепту у фільм вносили усі. Творці, актори, техніки пособляли картині своєю роботою, а єдиною готівкою, яку ми мали за душею, були два мільйони песо від Веракрузького університету; себто 80 тисяч доларів, а в кіновиробництві цього не стане навіть на пундики. Фільм зняли на 19-міліметрову плівку і в кольорі, за 93 дні каторжних робіт у гарячковій атмосфері кварталу Порталес, який мені здається одним з найхарактерніших в Мехіко. Я знав його дуже добре, бо понад двадцять років тому працював у складальні типографії в цьому кварталі і бодай раз на тиждень, по завершенню роботи, ми з тими добрими ремісниками і найкращими друзяками йшли перехилити не одну чарчину в місцевих корчмах. Нам здалося, що він є природним середовищем для фільму «Марія, серденько моє». Нещодавно я подивився вже завершену картину і зрадів, упевнившись, що ми не помилились».

Взагалі, попри те, що творчість Маркеса навіть ним самим вважалася непридатною до кіноадаптацій — він дуже не хотів, щоб екранізували «Сто років самотності», — кіно завжди було його захопленням. Він навіть вів майстер-класи з написання сценаріїв, сприяв появі фундації з підтримки нового латиноамериканського кінематографа, писав відгуки на фільми та репортажі про режисерів. 

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