«Вірусосфера»: чому людина – не наймогутніший господар планети

Віруси – що воно таке і звідки береться? Чи загрожують вони людству, чи ж є невід’ємною складовою нашої екосистеми? Нам слід боротись із ними чи вчитися співіснувати?

Коли у 16 столітті іспанські конкістадори вівойовували землі корінних племен Південної Америки — інків та ацтеків, значною мірою їм у цьому допомогали віруси, привезені на невідомий континент. Однак вже 1918 року Європа стикнулась із досі невідомою інфлуенцою, або іспанським грипом. Та пандемія тривала три роки і охопила пів мільярда населення планети, тоді померли від 20 до 50 мільйонів людей. А за сто років з’явилась нова загроза для людства — COVID-19. Чи впораємось ми з нею і що для цього потрібно зробити? 

Сотні різноманітних вірусів живуть поруч із нами непомітно і проявляються зазвичай у людей зі слабким імунітетом. Чому так відбувається і як ми співіснуємо, науці поки невідомо. Вчені змогли заглибитись у неперевершено живучий світ вірусів лише декілька десятиліть тому, коли за допомогою електронного мікроскопа вперше розгледіли ці мікроорганізми. 

Попри поширену думку про роль віруса виключно у ролі паразита, існує кардинально інший підхід до вивчення природи царства мікроорганізмів. Саме його намагається показати у книзі «Вірусосфера» доктор Френк Раян.

Ласкаво просимо до вірусосфери

У багатьох сферах науки останніми роками став популярним відхід від людиноцентризму — ні, ми не є центром екосистеми, і роль інших організмів на планеті не менш важлива. Вчені усвідомили, що прийнятий підхід до вивчення навколишнього середовища, біосфери, є недостатнім для розуміння взаємозв’язку живих організмів. Тож тепер вони спрямовують свої дослідження за межі біосфери, а точніше, в її глибину — вглиб суходолу, атмосфери й океану, щоб краще дослідити рушійні сили всього, що відбувається у світі. Еволюціоністи запропонувати нову перспективу — вірусосферу як новий фундаментальний підхід вивчення всього живого.

Вірусосфера — це напрямок дослідження складного і поки мало зрозумілого взаємозв’язку між вірусами та клітинними організмами. Це дослідження симбіозу, який наглядно демонструє, як взаємодіє усе у світі. Яке місце людини у цій парадигмі? Адже кожна людина є частинкою екосистеми і в той самий час вона сама є екосистемою з бактеріями і вірусами. Тобто ми є частиною вірусосфери Землі і самі є вірусосферою.

Вірус — а що воно взагалі таке?

Поки Ілон Маск шукає життя на Марсі, вчені еволюціоністи все-таки намагаються розкрити секрети життя на Землі. Одним із нових феноменів є віруси. І що більше вчені досліджують їхні природу й активність, то більше переконуються, що уявлення про еволюційні процеси на нашій планеті невдовзі кардинально зміниться, Адже віруси є найпоширенішими біологічними організмами в різних середовищах і дуже важливим елементом існування всіх інших організмів на планеті.

Одні вчені вважають віруси неживими істотами, інші називають їх хімічними сполуками. А Френк Раян у книзі «Вірусосфера» доводить, що віруси – це нове і таємниче явище, можливість вивчення якого змінить уявлення про біологічні організми. Зокрема він вважає віруси проміжною категорією між живими організмами та хімічними сполуками. І називає їх все-таки живими, хоч і малодослідженими організмами, в декілька разів крихітнішими за бактерії. 

Інше, що важливо розуміти у підході до вивчення вірусів Френка Раяна, – це необхідність відкинути уявлення про їхній паразитизм як єдина форма співіснування з іншими організмами. Насправді їх є декілька, і всі вони важливі з точки зору еволюції кожного клітинного організму, бо різні віруси діють і взаємодіють із клітинами господаря (людиною, твариною, рослиною чи бактерією) в різний спосіб. 

Тобто досліджуючи віруси варто відкинути ідею про моральність і етичність, бо віруси насправді не мають таких категорій. Френк Раян запевняє, що віруси насправді не злі, вони уявлення не мають, що «правильно» і що «погано», їм навіть не властиво думати, бачити і відчувати. Віруси не хочуть нашкодити людині, вони взагалі нічого не хочуть, а діють за базовим інстинктом збереження і репродукції. Віруси аморальні і, як кожен організм, мають інстинкт самозбереження. 

Тож якщо вийти за межі уявлення про злих вірусів, можна спостерігати за їхньою поведінкою, місцем і функціонуванням у різних екосистемах. Більше того, вони є не лише невід’ємною частиною екосистем, а так само залежні від інших організмів  адже самі не можуть пересуватись і роблять це завдяки іншим живим істотам. 

Віруси — це не просто причина багатьох хвороб

Напевно, кожен із нас може без зайвого клопоту назвати десяток вірусних хвороб, відомих нам із дитинства — краснуха, вітрянка, свинка, грип, герпес — і доповнити їх більш серйозними, список яких останнім часом очолює коронавірус. Тож не дивно, що ми думаємо про віруси як про причину більшості хвороб. Однак це лише одна сторона медалі. 

Усвідомлення того, що наш взаємозв’язок із вірусами не лише негативний, стимулює дізнатись більше про ці організми і зрозуміти, як вони можуть впливати на наші клітини, ДНК і РНК. Останні дослідження еволюціоністів, вірусологів і мікробіологів показують, що ми не є могутніми господарями в цьому світі, але є дуже важливою складовою частиною еволюційного процесу усього живого. Цей ланцюжок розвитку настільки взаємозалежний, що без вірусів, бактерій чи інших клітинних організмів не існувало би відомого нам світу. Різноманіття вірусів, важливих для симбіозу між живими організмами, є причиною балансу співіснування різних істот і досі недооціненим явищем. 

А як щодо людини? Пам’ятаєте, кожен із нас є вірусосферою і практично з утробного періоду живе в гармонії з бактеріями та вірусами. У людському організмі співіснує незліченна кількість мікроорганізмів — лише у товстому кишківнику міститься до 100 трильйонів мікробних клітин, які сприяють нормальному стану нашого здоров’я. А сучасні дослідження показують, що трикутник взаємозалежності клітинного організму, бактерій і вірусів містить ще безліч невідомого.

Коронавірус: невже все так погано?

І ось знову. Людина зустрілась із ще одним новим вірусом, і таке відбувається все частіше. Менш відомі українцям віруси Зіка, Ласса, Магбург, Ебола і хантавірус – усі вони разом із COVID-19 мають різне походження, однак мають і спільні властивості. Перш за все, наш імунітет не знає, як із ними боротись, бо зіткнувся з ними нещодавно. а ще вони передались людині від тварин, які мають на них імунітет.

У чому полягає найбільша загроза сучасної пандемії? Чи варто порівнювати COVID-19 із пандемією іспанського грипу, який вирував планетою століття назад? На думку Френка Раяна, який досліджує еволюцію вірусів понад три десятиліття, людство, безумовно, виживе, набуде імунітет, однак не зрозуміло, якою ціною. Епідеміолог переконаний, що національні уряди та органи охорони здоров’я мають вжити оперативних заходів. І питання не лише в тому, що COVID-19 страшенно заразний, а ще і в тому, що людство не знає, як дати собі раду в повномасштабній війні з цим мікроорганізмом.

Замість висновку – мораль, або чого ми не розуміємо у нашому взаємозв’язку з вірусами

У «Вірусосфері» Френк Раян розповідає про різноманітні способи взаємодії вірусів з іншими організмами. А ще про те, чому з деякими вірусами ми співіснуємо з часів Гіппократа, а з іншими зіштовхнулись зовсім нещодавно. Але чому з’являються нові віруси і чи коректно вважати їх паразитами? Можливо, варто поглянути на співіснування людини і вірусів під іншим кутом зору, де людина — не безневинна жертва, а рівноправний партнер взаємодії. 

Надія Скокова
Я – історик, пишу концептуальні тексти й дисертацію. Моє хобі – робити складні речі простими. Вірю у власну впертість та уяву.

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