Особливості сімейного бізнесу: що треба знати заздалегідь

Книга «Сімейний бізнес. Найкращі практики для перспективного наставництва та довгострокового управління» — посібник для тих, хто коли-небудь замислювався над своєю сімейною справою або ж до кого вже перейшло правонаступництво в керівництві компанією своїх родичів.

Як стверджують автори, характерною рисою сімейних фірм є нешаблонні стратегії, бо адже власна справа дає більший простір для експериментів. Та разом з тим не варто забувати і про основи, які варто знати, перш ніж поринути в управління сімейною справою. Розповідаємо декілька з них.

Що вважати сімейним бізнесом?

Коли сім’я володіє принаймні 25% голосів, які закріплені за її статутним капіталом, такий бізнес вже можна назвати сімейним. Сімейний бізнес складається з трьох тісних кіл, які переплетені між собою: сім’я, власники та менеджери компанії. Хтось може виконувати роль у всіх трьох колах: бути членом сім’ї, який є власником та виконує менеджерські функції. Хтось із сім’ї може бути власником, але не працювати безпосередньо в компанії; а хтось навпаки. Окрім того, в сімейному бізнесі, як серед власників, так і серед менеджерів можуть бути й інші, не пов’язані з сім’єю люди. Про ці три підсистеми і варто пам’ятати, розглядаючи будь-які питання сімейного бізнесу, адже все, що з ним пов’язано, буде безпосередньо на них впливати. 

Керівник має бути професіоналом

Керівника сімейного бізнесу мають поважати не тому, що він належить до сім’ї власників. Керівник встановлює цінності і дотримується, щоб вони не змінювалися з часом. Бо в сімейному бізнесі власники і керівництво змінюються згідно з правонаступництвом, і щоб цей процес був максимально безболісним, варто слідкувати за загальним баченням компанії.

Оскільки в сімейному бізнесі велику частку роботи й так виконують члени сім’ї, варто більше довіряти їх діяльності і менше витрачати часу й грошей на моніторинг їхньої роботи, зосередившись краще на інших сферах. Керівництво має сформувати довіру до тих, хто приймає рішення в компанії.

Не варто боятися призначати сторонніх (незалежних) фахівців як директорів фірми. Погляд зі сторони здатний принести компанії нові здобутки. До того ж, працівники матимуть більше амбіцій, бо розумітимуть, що в керівництві можуть брати участь не лише ексклюзивно члени сім’ї і що в кожного є шанс кар’єрного росту і розвитку. 

Боротьба інновацій з традиційністю

Сімейні фірми вважаються більш відданими традиціям і менш схильними до проведення інновацій. Менеджери менш схильні ризикувати, аби зберегти цінності компанії; ринок і його потреби зазвичай відходять таким чином на другий план. Однак жодна компанія не існує відірвано від зовнішнього ринку. Галузева динаміка, зміна технологій, демографія клієнтів та нове законодавче регулювання сфери зумовлює стимул компанії поступово змінюватися і йти на поступки. 

У сімейних фірмах в інноваційних впровадженнях завжди існує трилема: інтереси сім’ї, власників та менеджерів часто не збігаються у цьому питанні. Треба враховувати фінансові ресурси, можливість використання найкращих практик та залучення кваліфікованого персоналу. А всі ці складові передбачають зміни в структурі стратегії компанії, які мають бути узгоджені з усіма. І напругу між сім’єю, менеджментом і керівництвом долати вийде складніше.

Варто розуміти, що через відданість традиціям кожне нове покоління в сімейному бізнесі менш схильне до ризиків. Це можна перебороти, встановивши лише довгостроковий результат діяльності компанії як традицію. Він буде незмінним, а ось як його досягати — вирішуватиме кожне нове покоління, виходячи з зовнішніх умов, найбільш вдалих для їхнього часу.

Для розуміння ризиків варто прописати карту протилежностей для традицій і для змін, де вказати, чим хороша і погана стара стратегія, а чим — нова. Підрахувавши усі можливі плюси і мінуси і оцінивши, як кожен з них вплине на компанію, можна вирішити, чи варто змінювати стратегію саме на нову запропоновану. Можливо, ваше бачення стратегії зараз ще не допрацьоване. Тоді варто поглянути на мінуси традиційного курсу і розробити нову, яка би помітно вигравала на його фоні і ці мінуси перекривала.

Ще кілька слів про книгу

Те, що ми розповіли у цій статті — лише початок до розуміння того, яким складним є поняття сімейного бізнесу. У книзі автор багато говорить про наставництво, підприємництво і лідерство як основні функції, які мають виконувати в сімейному бізнесі члени сім’ї. Про кожну з них детально розповідається окремо з прикладами відомих компаній. 

Книжка підійде навіть для новачків, адже містить в собі також і основні теоретичні основи управління бізнесом та створення стратегічного плану на майбутнє.

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  74. Hi, I think your site might be having browser compatibility issues. When I look at your website in Safari, it looks fine but when opening in Internet Explorer, it has some overlapping. I just wanted to give you a quick heads up! Other then that, fantastic blog!

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