Вчимося писати, як Стівен Кінг: поради з книги Ростислава Семківа

Як написати прекрасно про жахливе? Письменник, літературознавець і перекладач Ростислав Семків звернувся до творчості Стівена Кінга за відповіддю на це питання. 

В книзі «Уроки короля жахів. Як писати горор» (Pabulum, 2020) — не просто узагальнення порад Кінга. Насправді тут є дещо більше: біографічні факти, хронологія творчості і зміни стилю й тематик, інформація про розвиток самого жанру горору і що він у собі передбачає, як Кінг вписаний у контекст історії горору та які філософські мотиви зачіпає у творчості… Та й навіть це — ще не все. 

Фактично, Семків хоче познайомити нас зі Стівеном Кінгом; і не лише з його творами чи з життям. Це не абстрактні поради, а повноцінне дослідження, як функціонує вдало написаний горор. 

«Ходімо, я розкажу вам про Стівена Кінґа — супермена зі штату Мен, що спершу був простим працівником пральні та вчителем англійської мови», – запрошує автор. Ми пішли разом із ним і ось що дізналися.

Реалістичність жаху

Твори Кінга — це не відразу фентезійний світ з чудернацькими монстрами. Щоб жах був реальнішим, ми спочатку бачимо оманливий звичайний світ, не позбавлений документальності. Жахливе у нього проникає в звичну картину життя, і раптом її перериває. Читаючи, ми починаємо думати, що описані жахи — цілком можливі, тут і виникає моторошне відчуття. Чи може мертва людина просто так прийти і перервати обід своїх родичів одного дощового вечора, сказавши «Привіт» із похмурою посмішкою?  У всесвіті творів Кінга може. 

Для ще більшої реалістичності Кінг може використати не лише паранормальних героїв, а й, наприклад, несправні машини, техніку, в яку щось вселилося. Пам’ятаєте роман «З Б’юїка 8»? Іншопланетну істоту не обов’язково було зображати незвичної форми, щоб вона вселяла жах. Пожираючий всіх старенький б’юїк, авто, яке часто можна побачити у дворі сусіда в США, — ось що налякає, якщо додати йому цих незвичних здібностей. 

Додайте до горору ще побільше описів побуту, детальних життєвих епізодів з простими діалогами — і межа між реальним та ірреальним зітреться вкрай.

Формалізація в письменництві

Горор — важка робота. Перш, ніж сідати за неї, варто розуміти, що й тут є свої правила. З того, що відразу впадає в очі, це, по-перше, що треба бути готовим постійно писати і вдосконалюватися. Кінг пише по 4 тис слів щодня, тобто 16 сторінок, майже без вихідних (він дозволяє собі їх усього кілька на рік). Писати треба, оминаючи усі відмовки, такі як «не буду, бо все одно нічого не вийде». Звісно, не кожен може витримувати такий темп, але тримаючи в голові цей приклад максимальної письменницької ефективності, вдасться змусити себе попрацювати трохи більше і краще. Проте тут у Кінга є примітка: спочатку краще все ж визначити, чи є в людини схильність до письма. Можливо, значно вдаліше буде малювати комікси чи знімати відео?

По-друге, не забувати про, банально, чітку структуру свого твору. У творах Кінга Ростислав Семків примітив таке:«Його романи зазвичай мають 3—5 частин, розбитих на 10—20 розділів кожна. Якщо це великий роман, то всередині розділу є ще поділ на епізоди. Скажімо, «Сяйво» складається з 5 частин тривалістю від 6 до 20 розділів. Структура нерівна, і Кінґ не дбає, аби її якось гармонізувати, проте вона доволі чітка з погляду функціональності.»

По-третє, варто навчитися тримати читача в саспенсі. Хочете, щоб читач не втратив інтерес до історії і прагнув дізнатися, що там далі? Зробіть кілька сюжетних ліній, чергуючи оповідь про них між собою; збільшуйте напругу історії до кінця розділу, а потім в наступному розділі — різко переключіться на розповідь про іншого персонажа чи події. Так, класично обірвіть все на найбільш цікавому місці і змусьте почекати, відтягнувши кінцівку. 

Стати літературним психологом

У творчості Стівена Кінга можна знайти багато філософського, але немає прямого підтвердження, чи читав він Фройда, Ніцше або Лакана, та й чи взагалі він колись замислюється над чимось настільки теоретичним, коли пише книжки. А проте психологізму і символізму в книгах вкрай багато.

Не секрет, що багато книг письменника — посттравматичні, і він любить виписувати весь цей жах із самого себе. Він був свідком чужої смерті, сам потрапляв в аварію, його часто не полишають думки про власну смерть. Крізь горори проступає підсвідоме і навіть днщо глибше й таємничіше — несвідоме. І ми читаємо, бо насправді дуже хочемо боятися, є в цьому щось спокусливе. 

Фанати Лакана і Жижека знайдуть в книзі Семківа цілий підпункт про те, як, сам того не розуміючи, Кінг втілив у своїх історіях ідею Лакана про те, що контролювати через обіцянку задоволення ефективніше. Передчуття чогось приємного манить більше, аніж сам процес отримання задоволення; так вже спрацьовує наша психіка. Ось чому жахливі персонажі Кінга, які манять своєю невідомістю, спокушають героїв довіритися їм від самого початку.

Розуміння того, як можна вплинути на свідомість, — не такий вже й поганий прийом у письменництві. Навпаки, письменник теж манить, обіцяючи принести щось для задоволення, даруючи цю надію на інтелектуальну розрядку. Чи можна це вважати маніпуляцією? Впевнена, що ні. Бо навіщо ж тоді література, якщо вона не буде нас чіпляти, інтригувати й змушувати прагнути і далі копирсатися в темі, аби розтягнути насолоду?

Мастрід творів Кінга для тих, хто хоче писати книжки

У кінці книги Ростислав Семків дає ще кілька порад, як читати Кінга, розділивши можливі тематики та інтереси читачів і визначивши до них відповідні книги. Тут знайдуть собі чек-ліст творів до смаку і букблоґери, і дуже серйозні люди, і навіть фанати, які вже все-все-все прочитали. Ми ж помітили черед цього невеличкий список книг Кінга з персонажами-письменниками. Що ж, записуйте:

Ну а спочатку, звісно, «Уроки короля жахів. Як писати горор» Ростислава Семківа.

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